When asked about the large bronze camel on his desk LW Frohlich owner of a design/advertising agency during the 1950’s and 60’s (one of the first in the world to do advertising for the pharmaceutical industry) would say, “It’s a horse designed by committee.” A sentiment apparently shared by Gladwell on the impact social networking sites like Twitter yield on society, expressed in his latest New Yorker article: http://tiny.cc/hkoi2.
On October 3rd 2010, participants in the Health Care Social Media (#HCSM) chat on Twitter were challenged to take up Gladwell’s opinion:
“ Malcolm Gladwell said FB/Twitter can’t change the world (http://bit.ly/c1YSIr) or solve ‘human problems’ of motivation. So, can Twitter and Facebook really impact healthcare (and motivation)? (Gladwell theorizes no).”
It appears the #HCSM participants felt differently:
• MeredithGould Consider this: Gladwell might be wrong.
• sixuntilme @HealthSocMed The diabetes community is VERY motivated through FB and Twitter connections. Patient communities = better outcomes, IMO
• @MHoskins2179: Communicating w/my D-tweeps keeps me accountable, sane, healthier. I am in better health becuz of Fcbk/Twitter/blogging.
• RichmondDoc I think the extent to which SM will influence motivation & behavior will depend on the extent to which we make meaningful connections
• @kstansberry: T3: FB and Twitter won’t cure disease, but can be great tools for collab. & attitude change. Many small changes lead to better health
• @hgazay: #hcsm T3 obviously! In cases such as orphan disesases FB might be the only way to connect with similar patients and share
• doctoranonymous #hcsm T3 Advocating change is done in the digital world. Performing change is done in the analog world
Gladwell sums up his thoughts nicely when he says, “Are people who log on to their Facebook page really the best hope for us all?” For those of us in the medical field, is social media (SM) the best hope for health care (HC)? Will participants in HC and SM drive changes to patient outcomes? Will SM change HC behavior?
To answer these questions, let’s begin with Gladwell’s premises, boiled down to the key points below:
• SM will not change the world because activism that can motivate population changes will not occur through SM. True activism is based on a different type of network and participants.
• The key to successful activism are strong ties to others who are active and reside within a hierarchy.
• SM is driven by weak links. Weak links are the source for new ideas and information. But weak links do not create strong ties that drive activism and change.
• Living , breathing networks have a hierarchy. SM by design has a very weak hierarchy and is, in most cases, leaderless.
• SM succeeds best when you don’t ask much of the network participants. To drive change participants must be highly active and reside in a hierarchy.
Can SM change the world? In my mind, “no,” especially when Gladwell uses the definition of activism as that of the 60’s Greensboro, NC version as the standard. A Tweet-up will not drive racial equality. A Tweet-up can bring those who are true activists together but, as Gladwell asserts, Tweeters are not the highly motivated “Red Brigade activists.”
Recent data indicates a small percent of participants in SM/networks are creators (see Josh Bernoff’s article on Social Technographics http://tiny.cc/rhkmj0y4oz ). The vast majority of participants in SM watch, listen and learn (spectators). Since there is not centralized leadership or hierarchy motivating and driving the majority into taking action, change is difficult. Joiners must be highly motivated so change can occur or to even move up the ladder to creators. Mr. Gladwell, you do not have to be a creator to be motivated, active, learn and change.
Science tells us that there are self-reported differences in empowerment between “lurkers” and “posters” in online patient support groups, according to a recent study conducted by researchers in the Netherlands (read the full study at http://tiny.cc/e0e0m). “Lurkers” (those who do not actively participate by sending postings) scored significantly lower than “posters” (those who actively contribute by sending postings on patient support group web sites) with regard to “the empowering process,” “the exchange of information,” and “finding recognition.” The outcomes between lurkers and posters did not differ in regard to, “feeling more confident in the relationship with their physician,” “improved acceptance of the disease,” “feeling more confident about the treatment,” “ enhanced self-esteem,” etc. (p<.0011). The conclusion of this study established that lurkers benefit from support groups and networks. This is important because it supports the idea that communities or network participants can rise equally in knowledge and understanding, no matter their level of participation. So, weak connections count online.
The chart below is from a 2008 report written by Noah Elkin from iCrossing based on research by Opinion Research Corporation. This presents a pretty compelling argument about the importance of SM for patients seeking to access health data. We see patient online behavior before a physician visit and afterward. The patient gleans information, researches more and participates online. Hence, learning is occurring. It is interesting to note that “health care provider” is not surveyed in the chart. If there was a physician resource that patients could access, I wonder what this data would look like?
Some additional facts about healthcare and the web, taken from Kantar Media (http://tiny.cc/dygu6):
• 89% of the 178 million Americans who have gone online in the past month have performed health research.
• Reasons for going online: 71% seek knowledge about a condition, 59% are researching a symptom for themselves or someone else
• 56% of respondents said a health care provider makes a health web site trustworthy. 46% look for inclusion of academic articles or scientific research to indicate trustworthiness.
• 79% feel the web offers a wealth of resources in HC and 74% are cautious about which web sites they access for HC
• 77% of recently diagnosed patients turn to online sources for information, while 81% turn to a HCPs, and 51% rely on traditional print media
I agree with Gladwell and believe SM is primarily made up of weak links that are not especially capable of achieving activism that changes society. Still, SM remains a place to learn and listen. Because it is a weak link, it exchanges new knowledge and information quickly and efficiently. (See the post titled “SM in HC is More Than a Cute Name” to learn more about weak links and strong links in networks.) Members of networks absorb vast amounts of knowledge and information. This is one reason SM and HC works as well as peanut butter & jelly. I see patients involved seeking to solve health care problems as varied as they are.
Health care motivates us differently. Health care in many instances is about survival. Health care is complex and fraught with problems not easily solved. People with illnesses are more motivated than people without illness. Someone fighting cancer is as motivated for themselves or their family member as anyone in the Red Brigade. Health care activism is about one’s own self. The shortsightedness of Gladwell’s statement is that when it comes to social media and health care, the transformation concerns one person—yourself—not a landscape or a society.
As an advocate of SM, I know the power of patients who help each other, who tweet, blog, chat and challenge their health care providers with new ideas and questions. But this is not the activism Gladwell speaks about. It is one patient at a time multiplied by thousands every day. HC now is about individuals advocating for themselves and each other. It is a movement of one created by a vast network of information, knowledge and experience.
Let’s return to Gladwell’s quote: “Are people who log on to their FB page really the best hope for us all?” I see his words differently; people who log onto FB have the best hope for themselves in learning to solve their HC problems. They are doing it. What we are not seeing are the outcomes. It is easy to see outcomes or movement when 10 people sit in at a Woolworths. We can’t see outcomes if one patient lowers his blood pressure and that change over time when measured against someone not active in SM. Was it the diagnosis, the diet learned online, the friends on the network nagging the patient to exercise or the physician? Outcomes take time and need to be designed. As a group, we should be recommending and pushing for outcomes to measure the effect of SM on HC.
In the end, Gladwell is right that SM will not save the world. But SM, networks and other technologies, when used within a smart HC strategy, can improve patient outcomes. Patients want to change and get better and live and learn—the research data demonstrates that. The weaknesses Gladwell identifies are real but can be overcome to improve HC if we leverage the elements in health care, social media, and our primary care providers (PCP). SM networks for HC should be smaller and more functional to increase patient participation. SM networks for HC need to have some type of hierarchy in order to keep growing at a steady pace. SM networks for HC should welcome “long ties” for new information, as in offering a space for new information to be shared from external sources, while also supporting “short ties” among influencers, as in providing greater means and opportunities for key stakeholders to offer their insights and wisdom.
How can we achieve this? The revolution in HC can, in part, happen with SM if we identify strategies that focus on smaller units of measure. Functional networks should be built around a physician’s practice base. The physician becomes the natural leader of the online network. (Physicians should not practice here, but they should participate.) It becomes a “Red Brigade” cell. Members are highly motivated and active in their HC because they share a common need to solve their HC problems. They are motivated by each other, guided by their PCP. At its core, it involves one patient and one practice applying SM to drive change. It shares knowledge and experience from the Web. It is not WebMD but MyMD, the home of my HC network. That is the best hope we have to change HC.